2020 KGRI Working Papers
Working papers at the Keio University Global Research Institute (KGRI) are made available on the KGRI website by its researchers and participants in its research projects before their research results are officially announced in academic journals or books, etc., for use and discussion by researchers both inside and out of KGRI. Various versions of papers are made available before and during the peer review process.
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Distance learning with trust over open network policy: Nagasaki-Takaoka Model as a case study on distance learning for K12 education in Japan
No.2 Masaki Umejima
COVID-19 crisis is ascending the needs of distance learning. Keio University has been engaging in the revision of educational ICT policies in Japan for many years, however Japanese school network guideline by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japanese Government (hereinafter refer to MEXT) regulated every school to depend on a dedicated line for many years. In December 2019, the new educational network guideline announced by MEXT paved the way that every school launches distance learning class on public cloud service through the internet access via a public network. The new guideline mandated that the combination of cloud service, authentication, and encryption ensures to protect student data, unbundling the security and the network design. "Nagasaki-Takaoka Model" in which data trust is ensured on the open network has aimed to be the reference model of distance learning for K12 education in Japan. In December 2020. Takaoka City is ready to start distance learning in every elementary school and junior high school.
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Mutual Liberation of Consumers and Technology in the Recorded Music Industry
-A Historical Analysis of the Evolution of Experience Economy-
No.1 Minkyoung Cho and Jiro Kokuryo
This paper describes how business models in the music recording industry have evolved in accordance with technological developments and a changing societal environment. The research initially started with a historical analysis on how new technologies have been reshaping business models to provide a better, or 'liberating,' experience for consumers while unbundling and rebundling various components of the delivery system to secure revenue from the intangible "experience" good. At the theoretical level, this paper aims to establish a generic model for how technology affects business models in the "experience economy." Development of such a framework is important as the business models suited to physical goods are not useful for the rapidly developing experience goods that are delivered digitally. The first phase of the research strongly suggested that not only technologies but also major societal events, most notably those that triggered economic recessions, may have played a role in the development of new forms of business models in the industry that sometimes use technologies that were developed decades before. A second phase of research was conducted to verify how social events played a role in the evolution of business models and technology adoptions that came with it. We found instances of both technology-led evolution AND socially-led innovations. Ultimately, we found that the meaning of 'liberation' in consumer experience has changed throughout history, which acted as the driving force in the development of business models for experience goods like music.
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Supply Chain Management in the "With Corona" Age
Seminar Reports No.1 Jiro Kokuryo
Global economy may have lost its twin engines for growth in the last three decades, i.e., globalization and urbanization, as a result of Covid-19 pandemic. Focusing on the global supply chain, the loss may mean comeback of "stagflation" with inflation and economic slowdown. We should note that demise of globalization has been surfacing even before the Covid-19 pandemic for national security reasons, as well as for the divide it creates between the rich and the poor. Looking into the future, we can see conflicting patterns between digital and hardware industries. While see continuing and accelerating globalization in the former, we see return to localization in the latter. We also see possibilities for return of pre-WWII like "bloc economy" around the hegemonic control of IoT data.
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